The collection consists of over 2,600 findings mainly, but not exclusively, belonging to the upper Valdarno area and PLIO PLEISTOCENE age (from about 3 million to 200,000/100,000 years ago).
Mastodon’s remains (Ancanus arvernensis), tapirs (Tapirus avarnensis), rhinoceros (Stephanorinus jeanevireti) primitive bovidae (Leptobos stenometopon), primitive black bears (Ursus minimus), as well as birds (antidae ind), turtles (testudo sp., meys sp.) and fishes (Tinca vulgaris, Salmo sp.) belong to the Lacustrine Pliocene phase of upper Valdarno and come from the lignite mines exploited for many years by the local power house ENEL in Santa Barbara.
At an interval of 2-1,5 million years, belong remains of rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus etruscus), zebrine equidae (Equus stenonis, E. stehlini), swine (Sus strozzii), bovidae (Leptobos etruscus, L. vallisarni), average (Pseudodama nestii) and big sized cervids (Eucladoceros dicranios-ctenoides, Praemegaceros verticornis), bears (Ursus etruscus), canids resembling the modern wolf (canis etruscus, of which the Museum owns the TIPO skull, C. arnensis), panthers (Panthera toscana-gombaszoegensis), saber-tooth tigers (Homotherium crenatidens), lynx (Lynx issiodorensis), wild cats (Felis lunensis), giant cheetahs (Acinonyx pardinensis), giant hyenas (Pachycrocuta brevirostris, Chasmaporthetes lunensis), martens (Martes sp.), monkeys (Macaca sylvana florentina), beavers (Castor plicidens), porcoupines (Hystrix refossa), hares (lepus valdarnensis). The Museum also features elephant’s remains from the Mammuthus meridionalis species. An elephant specimen of great size is displayed, although incomplete, at the Museum entrance. From the end of this period date the remains of a hippopotamus belonging to an extinct species of great size (Hippopotamus antiquus).
From the sediments of the drainage basin of the third phase derive remains of a new elephant (Paleodoxodon antiquus), mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), steppe rhinoceros (Stephanorinus hemitoechus), horse (Equus ferus), boar (sus scrofa), urus (Bos primigenius), bison (Bison priscus), giant deer (megaloceros giganteus), red deer (cervus elaphus), roe (Capreolus capreolus) and wolf (Canis lupus).
To the third phase belong the copies of stone tools made of flint, one of which was attached to a wooden stick with mastic made of resin of birch, belonging to 200,000 years ago.
The collection includes casts of primitive human skulls.